Occurrence of Diamond. Every dealer in gemstones should know something of the resources
of the treasures that he offers. The way of the incident of the rough product is also a matter of
rate of interest. It will certainly therefore be the objective of this lesson to give a brief account of the geographical
resources of the principal gems and also of their mode of incident in the planet.
For harmony of treatment we will certainly again adhere to the coming down order of
firmness amongst the treasures as well as we hence start by describing the event of diamond. It will certainly be
of interest to note initially that the earliest source of the ruby was India, and that for many years
India was nearly the single source. Tavernier informs us that the diamond mining  industry was
in a growing state throughout the years from 1640 to 1680, during which time he made six journeys
to India to acquire gems. He speaks of Borneo as another resource of diamonds, yet most of the
diamonds of that time were furnished by India.
" Golcondas." Indian rubies were noteworthy for their magnificent steely blue-white high quality
as well as their terrific solidity, as well as periodically one comes on the marketplace to-day with an authentic
pedigree, tracing its origin back to the old Indian mines, and also such stones usually regulate really
high costs. One of a little over 7 as well as one fifty percent carat weights in weight, in the form of a best decline
dazzling, has actually lately been marketed at a price not far from $1,000 per carat weight. Such diamonds
are often called "Golcondas" due to the fact that one of the mining areas from which the great big
Indian rocks came was near the location of that name. Several of the rocks from the Jägersfontein
mine in South Africa look like the Golcondas  in top quality. Much of the huge historical crown
diamonds of Europe originated from the Indian mines.
The rocks were located in a sedimentary product, a kind of empire, in which they, with each other
with many other crystalline products, had come to be put behind bars. Their initial source has never ever
been figured out. They are for that reason of the so-called "River" type of rock, having actually probably been
delivered from their initial matrix, after the disintegration of the latter, to new locations of
down payment, by the carrying power of river waters.
The Indian mines now generate really few rocks. The USA Consular records periodically
discuss the searching for of a few scattered crystals yet the abundant down payments were obviously exercised
throughout the seventeenth century and also the early part of the eighteenth century.
In 1725 as well as in minority following years the Brazilian ruby fields started to supersede those of
India. Like the latter, the Brazilian fields were alluvial, that is, the products  were transferred
by river action after having been reached some range from their initial sources.
Brazilian Rubies. The diamonds of Brazil also looked like those of India in top quality, being on
the ordinary far better than those of the present South African mines. It might be included that even the
African rubies that are found in "river excavatings" ordinary much better in top quality than those of the
volcanic pipelines which form the major source of the globe's supply to-day. There seems to be a.
superabundance of iron oxide in the rocks of the African mines as well as in the diamonds themselves,.
presenting yellow or brown tints to the product. The "River" stones seem to have lost this.
shade to a substantial level, if they ever had it. Potentially long extraction with water has.
got rid of the extremely somewhat soluble coloring product. Whatever the reason for their supremacy.
" River" stones have always been more extremely pertained to than rocks from the volcanic pipelines.  Brazil provided the globe's primary supply of rubies up until the discovery of the African.
stones in 1867. Presently relatively small numbers of Brazilian stones get to the globe's.
markets. The majority of these originated from the excellent Bahia district (uncovered in 1844) instead of from.
the older mines of Brazil. The present Brazilian stones average of small size. They are, nevertheless,.
of very good high quality generally. A few green stones are found in Brazil and these may be of an.
absinthe-green or of a pistachio-green color.
Australian and also American Resources. While a couple of diamonds now begin the marketplace from New.
South Wales, and while a periodic rock is discovered in the USA (generally in glacial drift.
in the north main States, or in volcanic product rather appearing like that of South Africa in.
Arkansas) yet the world's outcome now comes nearly totally from South Africa and primarily from.
the huge volcanic pipes of the Kimberly district and those of the Premier Co. in the.
Transvaal.  South African Diamonds. The nature of the occurrence of diamond in the "pipelines" of South.
Africa is so well known to all that handle rubies to-day that but little area need be dedicated.
to it. The "blue ground," as the rock in which the diamonds are discovered is called, appears to have.
been compelled up from below, maybe as the material of a mud volcano, bringing with it the.
rubies, garnets, zircons, and the fifty or even more various other minerals that have been found in heaven.
ground. The fragmentary character of a few of these minerals would show that heaven ground.
was not their original matrix. Just how the diamonds initially crystallized and also where, is still.
probably an issue for further supposition.
While at first the mines were functioned, like quarries, from the surface area, and also while the excellent Premier.
mine is still so functioned, a lot of the here and now mines are functioned by sinking shafts in the native rock.
beyond the blue ground and then tunneling into the diamond-bearing  rock laterally,.
removing it to the surface, allowing it to weather on the "floorings" until it crumbles, then squashing.
as well as cleaning it and also focusing the hefty minerals by gravity methods. Huge diamonds are.
then chosen of the focuses by hand and little ones as well as fragments are removed by the.
" greasers," which are shaking tables greatly smeared with oil over which the concentrates.
are cleaned and also to which diamond alone, of all the minerals in the concentrate, sticks. The grease.
is periodically eliminated and also melted, and also the diamonds secured. The grease can after that be made use of.
German South West Africa provides a significant result of extremely small rubies, which are.
found in completely dry sand much from any type of existing rivers. These rubies cut to remarkable white melee and also.
the result is large sufficient to make some difference in the relative rate of tiny rocks as.
compared to large ones. The South West African area hardly ever generates a rock  that will afford.
a completed quarter-carat diamond.
Rubies. Passing on to the event of the corundum treasures we will certainly consider initially the ruby.
Many great rubies originate from Burmah. The district in which they are located is near Mogok.
Almost all the great pigeon-blood rubies originate from this area. The fashion for red rocks.
being for the time little forthcoming rubies are not currently in excellent demand. This cessation of.
need can hardly be laid to the competitors of the scientific ruby, for the sapphire is now really.
a lot in vogue, yet scientific sapphires look like the all-natural ones even more closely than do the.
Siam equips a significant number of dark garnet-like rubies. These do not regulate high.
rates. They are, nonetheless, often very gorgeous, especially when well reduced for brilliancy, and.
when in a strong light.
Ceylon furnishes a couple of rubies as well as a couple of red diamonds have been found in North Carolina. 
The Burmese rubies show up to have been created in a sedimentary rock matrix, however a lot of those.
acquired are gotten from the stream beds, where they have actually been carried by water after.
weathering out from the mother rock.
The rubies of Ceylon, too, most likely originated in a sedimentary rock matrix, yet are looked for in stream.
Sapphires. Great blue sapphires originate in Siam in bigger numbers than in any other locality.
Kashmir, in India, additionally provides splendid specimens of large size. Ceylon, too, provides a good.
bargain of sapphire, but primarily of a lighter shade than the Kashmir sapphire. The Ceylon sapphires.
are found in the streams, yet originate in rock of igneous beginning.
Montana furnishes significant amounts of sapphire, some of which is of great color. It is,.
certainly, like the Oriental if of equal color, being of the exact same material. The much better.
tinted sapphire from Montana is mined from the rock. Most of the sapphires found in the  river crushed rocks near Helena, Mont., are greenish blue or of various other colors, and not of fine blue.
Queensland as well as Victoria in Australia supply considerable amounts of sapphire. When blue the.
Australian sapphire is typically also dark to be extremely important. The gold and various other "expensive".
sapphires of the profession come greatly from the Ceylon crushed rocks. Siam returns smooth brown rocks as well as.
some fine green ones. A few of the Australian sapphires when cut in specific instructions yield.
Chrysoberyl. Chrysoberyl of the selection Alexandrite now comes primarily from Ceylon, although.
previously from the Ural Mountains.
The cat's- eyes also come mainly from Ceylon.
The yellowish-green chrysoberyls (which jewelers often call chrysolite) come both from.
Ceylon and from Brazil. They are often found in documents of "fancy sapphires" or "fancy.
shade stones," so called.
Spinel. Spinels are located in addition to ruby in Burmah and also in Siam as well as they likewise happen  in.
the gem crushed rocks of Ceylon. Limestone is the typical matrix of spinel, although it is more often.
extracted in gravels arising from the weathering of the matrix.
Topaz. Real topaz, of wine-yellow color, comes mainly from Brazil. Ceylon additionally furnishes.
yellow topaz. Asiatic Russia provides great big blue or turquoise crystals appearing like.
aquamarine in look. A lot of the topaz located in other regions is light or colorless.
Several of our western States, significantly Utah, Colorado, as well as California, furnish colorless topaz.
Mexico and also Japan additionally generate it. It is seldom reduced, for, while producing a rather brilliant stone, it.
has little "fire" and also is as a result not very eye-catching.
Emerald and Aquamarine. Beryl of the emerald range is extremely scarce in the earth.
The majority of the most effective emerald originates from Colombia, South America. Huge crystals of paler shade.
come from the Urals.
Like ruby and also spinel, emerald typically stems  in sedimentary rock. One is attracted to believe.
that these stones are of liquid origin and that sapphires, as well as beryl, besides emerald, are.
more likely of igneous beginning.
Beryls of the aquamarine type happen in numerous locations, however typically of too light a tint, or also.
incomplete, to be worthy of cutting. Great treasure beryl of blue and also blue tints comes from.
Siberia as well as from numerous places in the Ural Mountains on their Asiatic slopes.
The Minas Geraes area of Brazil, well-known for all kinds of treasure rocks, equips most of the.
aquamarine of commerce. The pegmatite dikes of Haddam Neck, Conn., of Stoneham, Me., and.
of San Diego Area, Cal., have provided magnificent aquamarine and also various other beryl. These dikes,.
according to the geological evidence, are the result of the combined activity of warmth as well as water.
Hence both melting and also dissolving went on together and as a result lots of great gem minerals of.
wonderful crystallization were created during the succeeding air conditioning. The  much longer the.
cooling down lasted and the even more free space for development the crystals had, the bigger and also more best.
they obtained. The author has himself obtained carefully crystallized aquamarine as well as tourmaline from.
the Haddam, Conn., region as well as the most effective samplings there occur in "pockets" or tooth cavities in the.
crude granite. Within, these pockets are lined with crystals of great smoky quartz, tourmaline, beryl,.
as well as various other minerals. In some cases crystals take place in mud or clay masses inside the tooth cavities and such.
crystals, having been free to grow on and on everywhere, were best in form, being.
doubly terminated, and also not attached anywhere to the rock.
Madagascar has in current years provided the finest pink beryl, which has actually been called.
Morganite. Yellow beryl (Heliodor) as well as aquamarine also happen in Madagascar.
Zircon. Zircon begins the market mainly from Ceylon. It deserves to be as much respected in.
this nation as it remains in Ceylon, for  its optical buildings are such that it is a really snappy.
stone. Some of the colors in which it happens, such as the gold browns, offer themselves well.
to the matching of treasures and garments, as well as, with the growth of education in such matters,.
jewelry experts would do well to improve acquainted with the possibilities of zircon as well as to introduce it.
to their clients. The supply from Ceylon suffices to justify popularizing the rock. Little.
zircons are located in virtually every heavy concentrate, as, as an example, in the focuses of the.
diamond mines of South Africa, as well as in those of gold seconds in numerous places. The harsh rocks.
resemble rough diamonds in gloss and are sometimes misinterpreted for diamonds.
Garnets. Garnets of different types are found extensively dispersed in nature. Perhaps the Hippie.
supply is best known, having provided a host of tiny stones which have actually generally been climbed cut.
for cluster job or made into beads. The Bohemian garnets are of the pyrope or  fire-red.
kind. Reasonably few large rocks of adequate transparency for cutting are produced in the.
Bohemian mines. The supposed "Cape rubies" of the diamond mines of South Africa are pyrope.
garnets as well as some large as well as fine ones are discovered. The "Arizona rubies" are pyrope garnets, as well as.
while hardly ever of noteworthy size, some are of extremely fine shade, coming close to deep rubies, and also the color.
continues to be attractive by synthetic light.
Almandite garnet, the "almandine" of the jewelry expert is less bountiful than pyrope, when of gem.
quality. Ceylon furnishes some and also India equips perhaps more. Brazil, from its respected gem.
gravels at Minas Novas, provides good almandite, and also smaller amounts are located in lots of.
Hessonite garnet, the cinnamon rock or "hyacinth" (wrong) of the profession, comes mainly from.
Andradite garnet, of the range referred to as demantoid, from its diamond-like residential properties,  and also.
which is generally offered under the misleading name "olivine" in the profession, comes from the western.
inclines of the Ural Mountains.
Tourmaline. Treasure tourmaline originates from Ceylon, from Madagascar, from the Ural Mountains,.
from Brazil, from Maine, from Connecticut, and from California.
The Ceylon tourmalines are mainly yellow or yellow-colored eco-friendly, in some cases great olive-green.
Those from the Urals might be pink, blue or eco-friendly. Brazilian tourmalines are generally green, however.
sometimes red. As a matter of fact in numerous areas numerous colors of tourmaline are typically located together.
and it may be that a single crystal will be eco-friendly in most of its length but red or pink tipped. Some.
crystals have a pink core as well as a green exterior. The author has discovered both of the two latter types.
in the Haddam, Conn., tourmalines, as well as on one occasion was amazed to return a wine-.
tinted tourmaline from a cutter to whom he had actually sent out a green crystal. There was however  a thin.
shell of the eco-friendly product on the outside of the crystal.
Some of the Madagascar tourmaline is of a fine brownish red, practically as deep as a light garnet,.
and also much more clear than a lot of garnet.
Would it not be fitting on account of its event in several areas in the USA, for.
Americans to use even more tourmaline in their gems? The high quality of some of the tourmalines of.
Maine, and also of California particularly, is not excelled by tourmaline from any other region. Some.
of the Maine tourmaline is of a delightful, slightly bluish-green tint that almost comes close to.
Kunzite. Spodumene, of the variety kunzite, originates from San Diego County, California.
Quartz Treasures. Coming currently to the quartz gems we discover purple and also citrine, or gold quartz.
commonly distributed so that just the areas that provide the much better grades of these rocks need be.
mentioned. Siberia and Uruguay  furnish great amethyst. Brazil additionally provides huge.
amounts of very good quality.
Purple. The primary charm of the Siberian purple lies in its huge red part, which.
allows it to transform from a deep grape-purple by daylight to a great red by fabricated light that is.
rich in red rays, as well as bad in blue ones. The paler types of amethysts that were as soon as esteemed,.
possibly for lack of the abundant deep variety, come to be gray in appearance and also much less lovely.
under synthetic light. India furnishes some amethysts, and also papers of "elegant color stones".
having native cut treasures from Ceylon, often consist of purples, however Brazil, Uruguay, and.
Siberia furnish the terrific bulk of the stones that are regarded as choice to-day.
Yellow Quartz. Citrine or gold quartz comes mostly from Brazil. The "Spanish topaz" is.
in some cases the result of heating smoky quartz from Cordova district in Spain. Our very own western.
mountains equip significant yellow and smoky quartz suitable for cutting.  Rose Quartz. Rose quartz of the finest high quality originates from South Dakota. Bavaria, the Ural.
Mountains, as well as Paris, Maine, have actually also provided it.
Agate. Agates of the finest kinds, such as carnelian and sard, come principally from Brazil and also.
Opal. Opals now come most mostly from Australia, the Hungarian mines yielding but couple of.
stones at present. The fine black opals of New South Wales are unmatched by any kind of that have.
ever before been located somewhere else. Mexico equips considerable opal, and is noteworthy for its fine "fire.
opal" or "cherry opal.".
Jade. A lot of the jade of the range nephrite that is gotten to-day comes from several of the.
districts of China or from Siberia or from Turkestan. A dark-green nephrite comes from New.
Jade of the jadeite range, which is harder than nephrite and extra extremely valued, is rare. The.
best specimens originate from Upper  Burmah. It is also found in China as well as in Tibet.
Peridot. Peridot, as well as the brighter olivine or chrysolite, while of the same mineral species, do not.
seem to take place together. The darker bottle-green samplings come from the Island of St. John in.
the Red Sea. It is claimed that most of the finer peridots now available have actually been recut from old.
rocks extracted years earlier.
Queensland provides light-green chrysolite, and also Arizona a yellowish-green range. Light-green.
rocks have been discovered near the ruby mines of Upper Burmah.
Moonstone. Moonstone comes mainly from Ceylon. The native cut samplings are sent below and.
recut, as, when indigenous cut, the direction of the grain is hardly ever correct to produce the moonlight.
effect in symmetrical style. The native cutters apparently attempt to retain all the dimension and also weight.
that is feasible, regardless of the result.
Turquoise. Blue-green of the finest blue and  most small structure (and also for this reason least subject.
to color adjustment) originates from the province of Khorasan in Persia. Several of our western states.
supply blue-green of fair high quality, notably New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and also The golden state.
Lapis Lazuli. Lapis Lazuli originates from Afghanistan, from Siberia, and from South America.
Malachite. Malachite is located in lots of copper mines, but mostly in those of the Ural.
Azurite. Azurite is found in the Arizona mines and also in Chessy, in France (therefore the name.
chessylite, occasionally used rather than azurite).
References. Students that desire to obtain a fuller account of the occurrence of jewels.
should go through G. F. Herbert-Smith's Gem-Stones under the different varieties. This job is.
the most recent authentic work of a strictly clinical personality. Dr. George F. Kunz's Gems and also.
Jewels of North  America provides a comprehensive account of all the finds in North.
America as much as the moment of magazine. Much of these are obviously of little business.
relevance. The Mineral Resources of the USA contains each year a long account of the.
occurrences of gem products in this nation. A different handout containing just the gem.
portion can be had gratis from the office of the USA Geological Survey, Washington, D.