Clarification of Refraction. Maybe the surest single technique for recognizing valuable stones

is to discover the refractive file of the material. To one not familiar with the study of

material science this requires some clarification. The term refraction is utilized to depict the bowing

which light goes through when it[5] passes (at any point however a correct point) from one straightforward

medium to another. For instance, when light passes from air into water, its way is bowed at the

surface of the water and it takes another bearing inside the water.

While each diamond stone refracts light which enters it from the air, each stone has its own distinct

capacity to do this, and each contrasts from each other in the measure of bowing which it can bring

about under given conditions. The exact assurance of the measure of bowing in guaranteed

case requires finely developed optical instruments and furthermore an information on the most proficient method to apply a

certain measure of math. In any case, this piece of the work has effectively been finished by

skilled researchers, and tables have been set up by them, in which the qualities for each

material are put down.

The Herbert-Smith Refractometer. There is[6] available an instrument called the Herbert-

Smith refractometer, through which anybody with a little practice can peruse immediately on the

scale inside the instrument the refractive record, as it is called, of any valuable stone that isn't

excessively exceptionally refractive. (Its furthest cutoff is 1.80. This would bar not very many stones of significance,

I. e., zircon, precious stone, sphene, and demantoid garnet.)

Those perusers who wish to make a more serious investigation of the development and utilization of the

refractometer will track down an extremely full and complete record of the subject in Gem-Stones and their

Particular Characters, by G. F. Herbert-Smith, New York; James Pott and Co., 1912. Part

IV., pp. 21-36. The Herbert-Smith refractometer is there portrayed completely, its standard is

clarified and bearings for utilizing it are given. The cost of the refractometer is essentially so

high (obligation included) that its buy probably won't be legitimized on account of the more modest retailer.

Each huge dealer[7] in hued stones, regardless of whether shipper, distributer, or retailer, ought to have

one, as by its utilization quick and precise conclusions of stones might be made, and its utilization

isn't limited to unmounted stones, for any stone whose table feature can be applied to the

surface of the focal point in the instrument can be resolved.